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ExpressingTo Be

In English, we use a copular verb (to be) to link a noun or pronoun with another noun phrase or adjective (e.g. She is a teacher. We are tired.) There is no explicit verb in Dothraki meaning to be. You can express sentences such as these in Dothraki by putting two nominative nouns (or pronouns) side by side.

mahrazh (man) + lajak (warrior)

Mahrazh lajak. 
The man is a warrior.

To express the negative of to be in this context, you simply add the word vosno/not – between the two nouns. In this case, the form vos is invariant, meaning it won’t change depending on whether it’s followed by a vowel or a consonant.

Mahrazh vos lajak. 
The man is not a warrior.

To express to be with adjectives in Dothraki, you can make an adjective into a verb—called a “stative verb”—by adding the ending–(l)at. Then you simply conjugate the stative verb as you would any other Dothraki verb. Here are some examples:

erinat to be kind
dikat to be fast
fishat to be cold
hajat to be strong
naqisat to be small
zheanalat to be beautiful
zhokwalat to be big

Anha zheanak.
I am beautiful.

Me zhokwae.
He is big.

Mori ahaji.
They will be strong.

Alegra erina.
The duck is kind.